Darkweb is not a network, but a complex of dark storages18th September 2017
According to researchers, the Darkweb is not as social as the World Wide Web. In the framework of the recent study, a detailed scheme of darknet was modeled, including central onions of onion domains, and algorithms for scanning links for each site were developed. As a result, scientists found in a dark web of 7,178 sites and 25,104 links linking these sites.
And, sites that did not have incoming links, it was impossible to detect. And in darknet, according to researchers Virginia Griffin, Yang Xu and Carlo Ratti, such sites that do not refer to others, about 87%.
To exclude sites that appear, they disappear, only those darknet portals that responded to search engine bots were included in the study. Prior to the exclusion of non-responsive sites, the researchers had a graph consisting of 13,117 vertices (nodes) and 39,283 ribs (links). Excluding non-responding sites, scientists received a graph with 7,178 vertices and 25,104 ribs (respectively, 55% and 64%). All findings of the study are based on the analysis of the last graph, which does not include non-responsive sites. He is defined in the research work as a darknet graph.
Preliminary findings of the study, published on the ArXiv portal, indicate that the darkweb, in fact, is not a network, but more like a system of dark storages.
Researchers also conducted a second search analysis of the dark web to find out how often darknet sites link to Internet sites. As a result of the analysis it turned out that the resources of the dark web have approximately the same number of outbound links both to Internet sites and to the sites of the most darkweb:
“The low number of outbound links is not due to the short life of sites in the .onion domain. Even if these sites remained stable and active for a longer time, they would still not be scattered by links. Excluding the technological side of the issue, we can assume that people who create darknet sites are mostly less social than the creators of Internet sites. ”
Therefore, according to the authors of the study, a dark network can not be considered a network as such:
“The metaphor” a complex of dark storages “more accurately describes the structure of darknet, which, unlike the World Wide Web, is a place of solitude and isolation.”
What does it mean
Virginia Griffin, an information technology researcher at the Alliance of Singapore and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Research and Technology, and the lead author of this darknet study, is unambiguous in its findings:
“Such results of the research became a surprise for me. I explain them by the fact that people who create resources in darknet are not too inclined to socialization. In other words, unlike the Internet, the Darkweb is practically not used as an instrument of socialization. “
For the conducted research the theory of graphs, the methodology used for the analysis of social relations on the Internet was applied. According to the researchers, the graphs were first used to study darknet and its pseudo-domains of the upper level .onion.
The world of the darkweb is rather closed and any understanding of its laws is very useful both for the ability to control this world and for understanding its social characteristics. Researchers dispute the habitual opinion that the Internet and the darkweb are very similar: “Any differences in the structure of the darknet and the World Wide Web can tell a lot about the people” populating “them.” And research has shown that the architecture of darknet is very different from the structure of a normal web.
The authors of the analysis point out that the darknet graph differs greatly from the Internet graph, primarily because the sites of the dark web have too few links to other sites. And it is very important to understand why there are so few of them.
Researchers give this two explanations. Technological – darknet sites constantly appear and disappear, so there is no point in giving links to a resource that may not already exist. And social – to date, people who create sites in the darkweave, are made up of a different social test, rather than those that host sites on the Internet.
Statistics of the Tor Project system says that now there are 60 thousand different onion addresses in the darknet. But as a result of the analysis, scientists have identified only 7,178 active onion domains.
Such a significant difference in the number of addresses researchers explain the presence in the Darkweb of various messaging services-TorChat, Tor Messenger, Ricochet – because each user of these instant messengers is assigned a unique onion-domain.
And although many find it difficult to name the approximate amount of data in the deep web, yet according to some estimates it contains 500 times more content than the regular Internet.